Monday, April 03, 2006

Edward's Presentation: Google Book Search: Fair use?

Some of this may be a repeat for folks as we touched on some of this earlier in class. However, to refresh, Google Book Search (formerly Google Print) aims to allow people to search utilizing a full text search inside every printed book that is inside the collections of the contributor libraries that Google is in the process of scanning. From the scanned books there are going to be three categories of books, those in the public domain (and have no controversy over), those that the publisher has authorized to be searched (again no controversy), and a third category of books, including out of print books that are under copyright. Copyright owners have the option to opt-out, but part of the controversy comes from this choice, as Google has chosen not to do an opt-in system as they feel this would devalue the project greatly.

Google Book search presents the fascinating copyright question, that is for the first time being dealt with as the technology to develop such a collection is only being realized. The copyright question is where to draw the line for fair use and whether the Google Book Search falls under fair use despite copying and storing a complete copyrighted work that was published in print.

There are essentially two different questions that can be discussed, one of them is whether Google Book Search is legal under existing law, a secondary question is whether we want the law to allow them to or not.

In fall 2005 two different lawsuits were filed against Google for the Google Book Search, one is a class action lawsuit brought by the Author’s Guild and several authors and a second lawsuit was filed by a group of publishers including McGraw-Hill, Penguin, Simon & Schuster and John Wiley. The lawsuits allege “Massive copyright infringement” and request an injunction to stop and in the class-action suit they request damages.

Google’s copying of the full text of copyrighted books has two points of copyright violations as alleged in the lawsuits against them. The first violation (stage 1) occurs when Google scans the book which they didn’t purchase into their database and the book then resides in zeros and ones in a server farm. The second violation (stage 2) occurs when a user submits a search request to Google and Google scan through the database on its server through the full text and pulls up and displays a small segment of text a few sentences at most, on its website for the user.

The author’s and publishers state that either stage (although you can’t have stage 2 without stage 1) is a violation of copyright law.

Is it legal?

Field v. Google (District Court NV 2006)

Field alleged that Google violated his copyrights to 51 works he created by storing them in an online repository (cached in order to facilitate searching and other uses, including keyword highlighting) The court held for Google. In holding this they cited an implied license theory (posting on the web invites others, there was a meta tag established opt-out ability that Field knew about) a fair use theory (four factors from Copyright act)

Kelly v. Arriba Soft (336 F.3d 811, 9th Circuit 2003)

Arriba Soft operated an internet based search engine that in its ‘crawl’ of the net copied photographs and converted them to ‘thumbnails’ displaying them later on a page of search results, with links to their original location. The 9th Circuit held that this was fair use. This was despite the commercial nature of the use, Arriba Soft was not “trying to profit by selling Kelly’s images” which would have been a distinct difference. The court also found that the nature of the fair use was transformative in that it “improved access” as an indexing tool.

UMG Recordings v. MP3.com

MP3.com had a database of songs, which came from CDs it copied. Users of MP3.com’s “Beam-it Service” placed their copy a CD to authenticate their ownership. Following the authentication users were able to stream that album over the internet, essentially allowing them to “space shift” music that they already owned. The court held that this was a copyright violation as they were merely repackaging the same music and there was no claim for transformation.

Under the case law it seems that there is an argument for Google, by following the Kelly case. The argument under that case is that Google has partaken in fair use, when applying the four factor test. However, Google Book Search doesn’t have the implied license theory that was present in Kelly and it is debatable how much this weighed in, as MP3.com in terms of the medium transformation aspect is more on point, however MP3.com didn’t add functionality (the search function) and also was providing a full copy to users, whereas here they are not. The MP3.com case found the initial copying of the 50,000 CDs to be the violation, so here a court could get wrapped up the stage 1 aspect. Lastly in predicting the outcome of the lawsuit, the plaintiffs have chosen to sue not in the Ninth district, but in the Southern District of NY instead which is felt to be less likely to grant fair use.

Should it be legal:
Ignoring for the moment of how a court would rule in the US, it is interesting to debate the issue of whether such usage should be legal or should be fair (The legislature could declare it fair). The arguments for the search are numerous as anything that can advance ‘human knowledge’ is potentially a great tool for a society. Further such a research device potentially increases the market for books (a few studies show that sales have increased for books after being entered into the Google Book Search, Also Amazon.com which has a search inside feature has found that sales increase 9% for books that have the feature) Despite arguments that book publishers will create this functionality, as has begun to occur on Amazon, it is unrealistic to expect this due to the enormity of the task, nor is likely that this will be able to be put into one database, which is at the heart of the value of this project.

Closing Notes:

I will acknowledge that I am biased on this issue, therefore I hope that the class discussion will be useful in poking holes, providing new insights, or getting me to look at the issue in a new way.

33 Comments:

Anonymous Scott Walker said...

Could you clarify the storage argument? If you sotre something for indirect commercial use is it fair use?

2:13 PM  
Blogger duffee said...

Although I agree that Stage 2 probably is a fair use and that overall, this is probably a good thing, I think it's hard to escape the fact that Stage 1 involves the unauthorized copying of entire works. Although the same thing happens online with web sites, I think the implied license is really what makes it okay with web sites. The same intent cannot be implied when someone simply publishes a book.

For example, if someone copied an entire film just to use one scene for a fair use performance, it would be hard to argue that the copying of the entire film would be justified merely because the end use is fair.

You're probably right that the best result might be to change the law rather than work within the existing framework.

2:14 PM  
Blogger Dave said...

I think someone touched on this, but my question is why you think that there would be a market failure if this doesn't fall under fair use?

2:19 PM  
Blogger Christine said...

I agree it is fair use - I don't understand what the publishers/authors are complaining about? It seems that they are already getting all of the benefits (increased sales) at no cost to them (expenses to create the database are likely high). The database does not keep people from buying books (I don't think you can read them online) - rather it makes people buy more books (or so it seems) - complementary - this kind of reminded me of the beanie baby case - we talked about in copyright today.

2:40 PM  
Blogger Brian Bulson said...

I believe it is fair use - right now. Meaning, that I believe if this lawsuit was brought in the future, say 10 years, and Amazon and companies had been licensing the rights to include books in their search for payment, I believe that there would be a much stronger argument that there is a damaging market effects and the fourth factor would weigh more heavily against fair use. I just think it is an issue of timing. The plaintiff's may have been more successful by waiting for a market for search licenses to emerge, and I think now the market is far from fruition which weakens their argument.

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9:08 AM  

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