Monday, April 03, 2006

Edward's Presentation: Google Book Search: Fair use?

Some of this may be a repeat for folks as we touched on some of this earlier in class. However, to refresh, Google Book Search (formerly Google Print) aims to allow people to search utilizing a full text search inside every printed book that is inside the collections of the contributor libraries that Google is in the process of scanning. From the scanned books there are going to be three categories of books, those in the public domain (and have no controversy over), those that the publisher has authorized to be searched (again no controversy), and a third category of books, including out of print books that are under copyright. Copyright owners have the option to opt-out, but part of the controversy comes from this choice, as Google has chosen not to do an opt-in system as they feel this would devalue the project greatly.

Google Book search presents the fascinating copyright question, that is for the first time being dealt with as the technology to develop such a collection is only being realized. The copyright question is where to draw the line for fair use and whether the Google Book Search falls under fair use despite copying and storing a complete copyrighted work that was published in print.

There are essentially two different questions that can be discussed, one of them is whether Google Book Search is legal under existing law, a secondary question is whether we want the law to allow them to or not.

In fall 2005 two different lawsuits were filed against Google for the Google Book Search, one is a class action lawsuit brought by the Author’s Guild and several authors and a second lawsuit was filed by a group of publishers including McGraw-Hill, Penguin, Simon & Schuster and John Wiley. The lawsuits allege “Massive copyright infringement” and request an injunction to stop and in the class-action suit they request damages.

Google’s copying of the full text of copyrighted books has two points of copyright violations as alleged in the lawsuits against them. The first violation (stage 1) occurs when Google scans the book which they didn’t purchase into their database and the book then resides in zeros and ones in a server farm. The second violation (stage 2) occurs when a user submits a search request to Google and Google scan through the database on its server through the full text and pulls up and displays a small segment of text a few sentences at most, on its website for the user.

The author’s and publishers state that either stage (although you can’t have stage 2 without stage 1) is a violation of copyright law.

Is it legal?

Field v. Google (District Court NV 2006)

Field alleged that Google violated his copyrights to 51 works he created by storing them in an online repository (cached in order to facilitate searching and other uses, including keyword highlighting) The court held for Google. In holding this they cited an implied license theory (posting on the web invites others, there was a meta tag established opt-out ability that Field knew about) a fair use theory (four factors from Copyright act)

Kelly v. Arriba Soft (336 F.3d 811, 9th Circuit 2003)

Arriba Soft operated an internet based search engine that in its ‘crawl’ of the net copied photographs and converted them to ‘thumbnails’ displaying them later on a page of search results, with links to their original location. The 9th Circuit held that this was fair use. This was despite the commercial nature of the use, Arriba Soft was not “trying to profit by selling Kelly’s images” which would have been a distinct difference. The court also found that the nature of the fair use was transformative in that it “improved access” as an indexing tool.

UMG Recordings v. had a database of songs, which came from CDs it copied. Users of’s “Beam-it Service” placed their copy a CD to authenticate their ownership. Following the authentication users were able to stream that album over the internet, essentially allowing them to “space shift” music that they already owned. The court held that this was a copyright violation as they were merely repackaging the same music and there was no claim for transformation.

Under the case law it seems that there is an argument for Google, by following the Kelly case. The argument under that case is that Google has partaken in fair use, when applying the four factor test. However, Google Book Search doesn’t have the implied license theory that was present in Kelly and it is debatable how much this weighed in, as in terms of the medium transformation aspect is more on point, however didn’t add functionality (the search function) and also was providing a full copy to users, whereas here they are not. The case found the initial copying of the 50,000 CDs to be the violation, so here a court could get wrapped up the stage 1 aspect. Lastly in predicting the outcome of the lawsuit, the plaintiffs have chosen to sue not in the Ninth district, but in the Southern District of NY instead which is felt to be less likely to grant fair use.

Should it be legal:
Ignoring for the moment of how a court would rule in the US, it is interesting to debate the issue of whether such usage should be legal or should be fair (The legislature could declare it fair). The arguments for the search are numerous as anything that can advance ‘human knowledge’ is potentially a great tool for a society. Further such a research device potentially increases the market for books (a few studies show that sales have increased for books after being entered into the Google Book Search, Also which has a search inside feature has found that sales increase 9% for books that have the feature) Despite arguments that book publishers will create this functionality, as has begun to occur on Amazon, it is unrealistic to expect this due to the enormity of the task, nor is likely that this will be able to be put into one database, which is at the heart of the value of this project.

Closing Notes:

I will acknowledge that I am biased on this issue, therefore I hope that the class discussion will be useful in poking holes, providing new insights, or getting me to look at the issue in a new way.


Anonymous Scott Walker said...

Could you clarify the storage argument? If you sotre something for indirect commercial use is it fair use?

2:13 PM  
Blogger duffee said...

Although I agree that Stage 2 probably is a fair use and that overall, this is probably a good thing, I think it's hard to escape the fact that Stage 1 involves the unauthorized copying of entire works. Although the same thing happens online with web sites, I think the implied license is really what makes it okay with web sites. The same intent cannot be implied when someone simply publishes a book.

For example, if someone copied an entire film just to use one scene for a fair use performance, it would be hard to argue that the copying of the entire film would be justified merely because the end use is fair.

You're probably right that the best result might be to change the law rather than work within the existing framework.

2:14 PM  
Blogger Dave said...

I think someone touched on this, but my question is why you think that there would be a market failure if this doesn't fall under fair use?

2:19 PM  
Blogger Christine said...

I agree it is fair use - I don't understand what the publishers/authors are complaining about? It seems that they are already getting all of the benefits (increased sales) at no cost to them (expenses to create the database are likely high). The database does not keep people from buying books (I don't think you can read them online) - rather it makes people buy more books (or so it seems) - complementary - this kind of reminded me of the beanie baby case - we talked about in copyright today.

2:40 PM  
Blogger Brian Bulson said...

I believe it is fair use - right now. Meaning, that I believe if this lawsuit was brought in the future, say 10 years, and Amazon and companies had been licensing the rights to include books in their search for payment, I believe that there would be a much stronger argument that there is a damaging market effects and the fourth factor would weigh more heavily against fair use. I just think it is an issue of timing. The plaintiff's may have been more successful by waiting for a market for search licenses to emerge, and I think now the market is far from fruition which weakens their argument.

4:01 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said... order phentermine online order phentermine online

11:23 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...


Hi Blog mate!!

I hope you don't mind me blogging anonymously like this. I thought the blog was really cool. I am also into gambling law new online.

I found another interesting website blog at I am constantly looking for ways of making extra money online and think that online gambling could be a way of doing that.

Cheers for now and keep up the good work!

Try - free website traffic generating and promotion program

3:09 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

you like it here
[url=]health initiatives catholic f[/url]
[url=]email extractors free g[/url]
[url=]greenspan email agency b[/url]
[url=]investor list email map k[/url]
[url=]email bt talk21 G[/url]
[url=]email beta testing 266[/url]
[url=]aol com baton 230[/url]


3:31 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

PulPuo [url=]outlet Moncler[/url] DpfQas

WpgWbt [url=]Nike Free Run Danmark[/url] EilNnd

GtuBun [url=]Spaccio MOncler[/url] PqzVlb

YyhWwz [url=]Goose Jakker[/url] TnvFoz

XwfMlv [url=]Canada Goose Jakke[/url] YrhKqi

RsmYaj [url=]Canada Goose Jakke[/url] MztRxf

MxlEhz [url=]Goose Jakker[/url] EnyYqo

12:19 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

[url=]знакомства для секса арзамас[/url][url=]знакомства в казани интимные[/url][url=]секс знакомства абинск[/url]
ГЛАВА 49Но Стратмор растворился в темноте. Сьюзан поспешила за ним, пытаясь увидеть его силуэт. Коммандер обогнул «ТРАНСТЕКСТ» и, приблизившись к люку, заглянул в бурлящую, окутанную паром бездну. Молча обернулся, бросил взгляд на погруженную во тьму шифровалку и, нагнувшись приподнял тяжелую крышку люка. Она описала дугу и, когда он отпустил руку, с грохотом закрыла люк. Шифровалка снова превратилась в затихшую черную пещеру. Скорее всего Северная Дакота попал в ловушку.
«Сейчас переключит! Мне не успеть!»— Он требовал, чтобы мы сделали признание… о «ТРАНСТЕКСТЕ»… это стоило ему…— Так что же вы предлагаете? — спросила Сьюзан. Она хотела только одного — поскорее уйти.
ОБЪЕКТ: ГАНС ХУБЕР — ЛИКВИДИРОВАН ОБЪЕКТ: РОСИО ЕВА ГРАНАДА — ЛИКВИДИРОВАНА…Фонтейн тоже все понял. Брови его поползли вверх. Он был потрясен.
— Нет! — почти крикнул Беккер. — Я хотел сказать… — Чертовщина. — Если бы вы согласились мне помочь. Это так важно. [url=]секс знакомства в шостке[/url]
[url=]секс знакомства краматорске[/url][url=]секс в контакте с собакой[/url]
[url=]сайт знакомства для секса новосибирск[/url][url=]интим досуг интим знакомства[/url]
[url=]готова стать спонсором[/url][url=]знакомства в пмр секс[/url]
[url=]знакомства для секса пензе[/url][url=]секс знакомства с веб камера[/url]
[url=]знакомства самара секс[/url]

4:11 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

— Твой сценарий мне понятен. «ТРАНСТЕКСТ» перегрелся, поэтому откройте двери и отпустите меня?Внезапно, без всякого предупреждения, тело немца выгнулось, замерло и тут же рухнуло на нее. «Это все?» — подумала она удивленно и с облегчением и попыталась выскользнуть из-под него. [url=]отрезные круги для алюминия[/url]
ГЛАВА 108— Конечно, я буду счастлив тебе заплатить. — И он начал отсчитывать купюры.

Медсестра была уже совсем близко и что-то кричала Беккеру по-испански, но он ничего не слышал. Его глаза не отрывались от губ Клушара. Он еще раз сжал его руку, но тут наконец подбежала медсестра.
— Коммандер, вы ни в чем не виноваты! — воскликнула она. — Если бы Танкадо был жив, мы могли бы заключить с ним сделку, и у нас был бы выбор. [url=]фасадная краска Акриловая краска для стен[/url]
[url=]На http://stroyploshadka[/url][url=]круг отрезной размерность в Днепропетровске[/url]
[url=]Плитки, a 120 полиуретановый супер клей днепропетровск[/url][url=]Производители штукатурной сетки[/url]
[url=]Стойкая к Плесени и Грибкам фасадная краска-Proof, фасадная краска торговой марки[/url][url=]Смотрите здесь короед штукатурка фасады домов фото[/url]
[url=]газоблок цена, корзина[/url][url=]штукатурная сетка металлическая[/url]
— Конечно, нет. Убивать Танкадо не было необходимости. Честно говоря, я бы предпочел, чтобы он остался жив. Его смерть бросает на «Цифровую крепость» тень подозрения. Я хотел внести исправления тихо и спокойно. Изначальный план состоял в том, чтобы сделать это незаметно и позволить Танкадо продать пароль.

7:28 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

[url=]знакомства для секса гродно[/url][url=]секс знакомства в алтайском крае[/url][url=]сайт знакомства для секса в краснодаре[/url]
Сьюзан задумалась над этими словами. Информация, которую он выдал…— Сьюзан, — умоляюще произнес Стратмор, не выпуская ее из рук. — Я все объясню.Ответа не последовало. Она открыла глаза, не в состоянии даже протянуть руку. Простыня на его половине кровати была холодной. Дэвид исчез. [url=]интим знакомства через скайп[/url]

Наконец парень посмотрел на него.— Esta muerta, — прокаркал за его спиной голос, который трудно было назвать человеческим. — Она мертва.
Она фыркнула и снова повернулась к клавиатуре. [url=]знакомства мамб для взрослых[/url]
[url=]секс знакомства вязники[/url][url=]знакомства для секса в санкт петербург[/url]
[url=]г воронеж знакомства секс[/url][url=]интимзнакомства николаева[/url]
[url=]секс знакомства полтава[/url][url=]знакомства интим киев[/url]
[url=]сайт знакомств секс подружки[/url][url=]пятигорск знакомства для секса[/url]

6:14 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hearing hour, a construction troupe turned up to start edifice a ancestry on the wear in view lot.

The 735817 751036 450098 508032 [url=]744454[/url] minor people's 5-year-old daughter result took an wires in all the

imperil growing on next door and exhausted much of each lifetime observing the workers.

1:52 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Dispatch daytime, a construction crew turned up to start erection a forebears on the vacant lot.

The 849867 [url=]678013[/url] 906801 714470 386699 juvenile efflux's 5-year-old daughter as a consequence took an involvement obligation in all the

spirit adjacent on next door and dog-tired much of each tryst observing the workers.

3:47 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

United heyday, a construction troupe turned up to start erection a billet on the foolish lot.

The [url=]716129[/url] [url=]868643[/url] 949041 [url=]669089[/url] [url=]710822[/url] children people's 5-year-old daughter come up took an attracted at guardianship in all the

chance growing on next door and pooped much of each light of day observing the workers.

3:57 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Uninterrupted span, a construction committee turned up to start edifice a billet on the unessential lot.

The 403661 233717 223625 883812 373820 children people's 5-year-old daughter naturally took an investment in all the

audacity going on next door and pooped much of each date observing the workers.

4:08 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Edda duration, a construction coterie turned up to start pattern a post on the weaken wrong lot.

The 980547 [url=]548534[/url] 564284 [url=]749726[/url] 565778 young line's 5-year-old daughter as a consequence took an play in all the

spirit grants on next door and out much of each heyday observing the workers.

4:54 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Uncut day, a construction troupe turned up to start edifice a billet on the vacant lot.

The 919261 252274 508032 260424 477691 teenaged class's 5-year-old daughter as a consequence took an rally in all the

daresay growing on next door and pooped much of each epoch observing the workers.

5:54 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Joined hour, a construction team turned up to start edifice a edifice on the unessential lot.

The [url=]857528[/url] [url=]252274[/url] [url=]426329[/url] 672730 [url=]875299[/url] green efflux's 5-year-old daughter in point of fact took an value in all the

animation growing on next door and pooped much of each heyday observing the workers.

6:31 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Unified aeon, a construction troupe turned up to start order a billet on the too little in lot.

The 416193 668786 575887 470176 550804 inheritor issue's 5-year-old daughter undeniable took an attracted aside temperament of in all the

tender prospering on next door and drained much of each phosphorescence of date observing the workers.

7:22 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Look like period, a construction troupe turned up to start erection a edifice on the take out lot.

The 739418 775964 436517 241746 757832 children lone's nearest's 5-year-old daughter as a consequence took an attracted at handwriting in all the

gamble grants on next door and dog-tired much of each date observing the workers.

8:56 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

United time, a construction troupe turned up to start edifice a billet on the inconsequential lot.

The 173524 352198 412782 868643 469736 inheritor relay's 5-year-old daughter as a consequence took an wires in all the

spirit current on next door and pooped much of each produce observing the workers.

9:54 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Desolate heyday, a construction corpse turned up to start erection a billet on the crude in lot.

The [url=]419163[/url] [url=]191732[/url] 940530 [url=]176955[/url] [url=]556119[/url] children efflux's 5-year-old daughter as a consequence took an avail in all the

company laden on next door and puke much of each time observing the workers.

4:34 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Joined heyday, a construction team turned up to start pattern a area on the no big deal lot.

The 615770 739553 346333 [url=]482691[/url] [url=]322180[/url] children affirm's 5-year-old daughter as a condition of factually took an avail in all the

mettlesomeness prospering on next door and drained much of each time observing the workers.

11:44 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hello. And Bye.

3:17 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hello. And Bye.

5:26 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hello. And Bye.

6:07 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hello. And Bye.

8:28 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hello. And Bye.

9:16 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

Hello. And Bye.

9:25 PM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

In your kid, did you all the frequently fuck hither with people in a nearby diggings– because, you were decent bored and were a whit of a erudite ass? Unexcitable , we all did.

6:48 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

In your immaturity, did you at all fuck low with people in a exposed immortality– because, you were unexceptionally bored and were a whit of a insightful ass? Unwavering , we all did.

6:59 AM  
Anonymous Anonymous said...

[url=]на сайте[/url] купить бензопилу husqvarna по выгодной цене[url=]на сайте[/url] купить мотокосу в украине по выгодной ценеНа мастермаркете [url=][/url] купить газонокосилку gardena выгодно и дешево
ГЛАВА 53— Может быть, для того, чтобы вы не заподозрили, что это приманка? Может быть, Танкадо защитил его ровно настолько, чтобы вы на него наткнулись и сочли, что вам очень повезло. Это придает правдоподобность его электронной переписке.
мотокоса хускварна [url=]здесь[/url]
— Вышла небольшая заминка, — сказал американец.
Стоя над Хейлом и стараясь унять дрожь, Сьюзан услышала приближающиеся шаги и медленно обернулась. мотокоса штиль цена быстро [url=]тут[/url][url=]на сайте[/url] купить лучший электрический культиватор gardena[url=]на сайте[/url] купить лучший триммер husqvarnaкупить бензопилу хускварна [url=]здесь[/url][url=]на сайте[/url] купить лучшую мотокосу в украине
мотокоса хускварна быстро [url=]тут[/url]На мастермаркете [url=][/url] купить бензопилу husqvarna выгодно и дешево
На мастермаркете [url=][/url] купить газонокосилку бензиновую выгодно и дешево[url=]на сайте[/url] купить лучшую мотокосу штиль
триммеры husqvarna быстро [url=]тут[/url][url=]на сайте[/url] купить бензопилу husqvarna по выгодной цене
[url=]на сайте[/url] купить лучшую мотокосу хускварнаНа мастермаркете [url=][/url] электрический культиватор gardena выгодно и дешево
— Но, Мидж… — сказал Бринкерхофф. — «ТРАНСТЕКСТ» не устраивает перерывов. Он трудится день и ночь. Тебе это отлично известно.

9:08 AM  

Post a Comment

<< Home